Arbitraje de inversión en el sector energético

¿En qué circunstancias un Inversor tiene derecho a recibir una compensación en el marco de la provisión de Tratamiento Justo y Equitativo del Tratado de la Carta de Energía como consecuencia del ejercicio del Estado de su derecho regulatorio en detrimento de los inversores? Análisis de casos de arbitraje de inversiones en el sector fotovoltaico en Italia, España y República Checa.

Palabras clave Tratamiento Justo y Equitativo, Expectativas Legítimas, Arbitraje de Inversiones, Tratado sobre la Carta de Energía, Cambios Regulatorios

Resumen

Un desarrollo importante de las energías renovables ha ocurrido en países como Italia, España y República de Checa en los últimos años, principalmente debido al apoyo del estado a proyectos de energía renovable. Sin embargo, debido a la crisis financiera, estos países decidieron revisar su marco regulatorio. Como resultado de los cambios implementados, los inversores en el sector renovable se vieron afectados. En consecuencia, demandas de arbitraje de inversiones contra estos estados se han presentado al amparo del Tratado de la Carta de la Energía. El presente Capítulo analiza esta jurisprudencia. En base a los resultados de los arbitrajes se evidencia la falta consistencia en los laudos arbitrales. Las diferentes interpretaciones en torno al estándar de Tratamiento Justo y Equitativo y a cómo equilibrar la necesidad (para el inversor) de un marco de inversión estable y predecible y el derecho soberano (del Estado) a regular, son la causa principal de las diversas soluciones. El concepto del Estándar de Tratamiento Justo y Equitativo en el Tratado se revisa y se compara con la evolución del concepto en otros tratados de inversión. En conclusión, se propondrán posibles enmiendas para aumentar la certeza en los arbitrajes de inversiones presentados al amparo del Tratado de la Carta de la Energía.

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Citas

Table of Arbitral Awards reviewed

Awards divided by country

Italy

Blusun S.A., Jean-Pierre Lecorcier and Michael Stein v. Italian Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/14/3, Final Award, (27/12/2016).

CEF Energía BV v. Italian Republic, SCC Case No. 158/2015, Final Award, (16/01/2019).

Greentech Energy Systems A/S, et al v. Italian Republic, SCC Case No. V 2015/095, Final Award, (23/12/2018).

Spain

Antin Infrastructure Services Luxembourg S.à.r.l. and Antin Energia Termosolar B.V. v. Kingdom of Spain, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/31, Final Award, (15/08/2018).

Charanne and Construction Investments v. Spain, SCC Case No. V 062/2012, Final Award, (21/01/2016).

Eiser Infrastructure Limited and Energía Solar Luxembourg S.à r.l. v. Kingdom of Spain, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/36, Final Award, (04/05/2017).

Isolux Netherlands, BV v. Kingdom of Spain, SCC Case V2013/153, Final Award, (17/07/2016).

Masdar Solar & Wind Cooperatief U.A. v. Kingdom of Spain, ICSID Case No. ARB/14/1, Final Award, (16/05/2018)

Novenergia II - Energy & Environment (SCA) (Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), SICAR v. The Kingdom of Spain, SCC Case No. 2015/063, Final Award, (15/02/2018).

The Czech Republic

Antaris Solar GmbH and Dr. Michael Göde v. Czech Republic, PCA Case No. 2014-01, Final Award, (02/05/2018).

ICW Europe Investments Limited v. Czech Republic, PCA Case No.214-22, Final Award, (15/05/2019).

Photovoltaic Knopf Betriebs GMBH v. Czech Republic, PCA Case No. 2014-21, Final Award, (15/05/2019).

Voltaic Network GmbH v. Czech Republic, PCA Case No. 2014-20, Final Award, (15/05/2019).

WA Investments Europa Nova Ltd. v. Czech Republic, PCA Case No. 2014-19, Final Award, (15/05/2019).

Other Arbitration Awards

Achmea B.V. v. The Slovak Republic, UNCITRAL, PCA Case No 2008-13, Final Award, (7/12/2012).

AES Summit Generation Limited and AES-Tisza Erömü Kft v. The Republic of Hungary, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/22, Final Award, (23/09/2010).

AES Summit Generation Limited and AES-Tisza Erömü Kft v. The Republic of Hungary, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/22, Final Award, (23/09/2010).

Azurix Corp v Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No ARB/01/12, Final Award, (14/07/2006).

Continental Casualty Company v The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No ARB 03/9, Final Award, (05/09/2008).

Continental Casualty Company v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/9, Final Award, (05/09/2009).

EDF Services Limited v. Romania, ICSID CASE No ARB 05/13, Final Award, (08/10/2009).

El Paso Energy International Company v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/15, Final Award, (31/10/2011).

El Paso Energy International Company v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/15, Final Award, (31/10/2011).

Electrabel S.A. v. Republic of Hungary, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/19, Final Award, (25/11/2015).

Glamis Gold Ltd v United States of America, UNCITRAL, Final Award, (8/06/2009).

Ioannis Kardassopoulos v. The Republic of Georgia, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/18, Decision on Jurisdiction, (6/07/2007).

Limited Liability Company Amto v. Ukraine, SCC Case No. 080/2005, Final Award, (26/03/2008).

Mondev International Ltd. v. United States of America, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/99/2, Final Award, (12/10/2002).

Parkerings-Compagniet AS v. Republic of Lithuania, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/8, Final Award, (11/11/2007).

Robert Azinian, Kenneth Davitian, & Ellen Baca v. The United Mexican States, ICSID Case No. ARB (AF)/97/2, Final Award, (01/11/1991).

Saluka Investments B.V. v. The Czech Republic, UNCITRAL, Partial Award, (17/03/2006).

Sempra Energy International v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No ARB/02/16, Final Award, (28/09/2007).

Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona, S.A.and Vivendi Universal, S.A. v. Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/19, Decision on Liability, (30/07/2010).

Total S.A. v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/04/01, Decision on Liability, (27/12/2010).

Total S.A. v. The Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/04/01, Decision on Liability, (27/12/201).

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Publicado
2021-07-30
Cómo citar
Bagnulo Cedrez, M. (2021). Arbitraje de inversión en el sector energético. Revista De Derecho, 20(39), 183-216. Recuperado a partir de http://revistas.um.edu.uy/index.php/revistaderecho/article/view/812
Sección
Tesinas de Masters
Palabras clave: Tratamiento Justo y Equitativo, Expectativas Legítimas, Arbitraje de Inversiones, Tratado sobre la Carta de Energía, Cambios Regulatorios